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Valor Collegiate Academies. Lignin Valorization : Emerging Approaches. Lignin, an aromatic biopolymer found in plant cell walls, is a key component of lignocellulosic biomass and generally utilized for heat and power.

However, lignin's chemical composition makes it an attractive source for biological and catalytic conversion to fuels and chemicals. Chapters will specifically focus on the production of fuels and chemicals from lignin and topics covered include i methods for isolating lignin in the context of the lignocellulosic biorefinery, ii more » thermal, chemo-catalytic, and biological methods for lignin depolymerization, iii chemo-catalytic and biological methods for upgrading lignin, iv characterization of lignin, and v techno-economic and life-cycle analysis of integrated processes to utilize lignin in an integrated biorefinery.

The book provides the latest breakthroughs and challenges in upgrading lignin to fuels and chemicals for graduate students and researchers in academia, governmental laboratories, and industry interested in biomass conversion. A comprehensive dairy valorization model.

Dairy processors face numerous challenges resulting from both unsteady dairy markets and some specific characteristics of dairy supply chains. To maintain a competitive position on the market, companies must look beyond standard solutions currently used in practice. This paper presents a comprehensive dairy valorization model that serves as a decision support tool for mid-term allocation of raw milk to end products and production planning. The developed model Swinger sex Kannas-e Zarghami used to identify the optimal product portfolio composition.

The model allocates raw milk to the most profitable dairy products while ing for important constraints i. The inclusion of all relevant constraints and the ease of understanding dairy production dynamics make the model comprehensive. The developed model was tested at the international dairy processor FrieslandCampina Amersfoort, the Netherlands. The structure of the model and its output were discussed in multiple sessions with and approved by relevant FrieslandCampina employees. The elements included in the model were considered necessary to optimally valorize raw milk. To illustrate the comprehensiveness Swinger sex Kannas-e Zarghami functionality of the model, we analyzed the effect of seasonality on milk valorization.

A large difference in profit and a shift in the allocation of milk showed that seasonality has a considerable impact on the valorization of raw milk. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Recent advances in oxidative valorization of lignin. Lignin, an aromatic macromolecule synthesized by all higher plants, is one of the most intriguing natural materials for utilization across a wide range of applications.

Depolymerization and fragmentation of lignin into small chemicals constituents which can either replace current market products or be used building blocks for new material synthesis is a focus of current lignin valorization strategies.

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And among the variety of lignin degradation chemistries, catalytic Swinger sex Kannas-e Zarghami of lignin presents an energy efficient means of lignin depolymerization and generating selective reaction products. Our review provides a summary of the recent advancements in oxidative lignin valorization couched in a discussionmore » on how these chemistries may contribute to the degradation of the lignin macromolecule through three major approaches: 1 inter-unit linkages cleavage; 2 propanyl side-chain oxidative modification; and 3 oxidation of the aromatic ring and ring cleavage reactions.

Opportunities and challenges in biological lignin valorization. Lignin is a primary component of lignocellulosic biomass that is an underutilized feedstock in the growing biofuels industry. Despite the fact that lignin depolymerization has long been studied, the intrinsic heterogeneity of lignin typically le to heterogeneous streams of aromatic compounds, which in turn present ificant technical challenges when attempting to produce lignin-derived chemicals where purity is often a concern.

In Nature, microorganisms often encounter this same problem during biomass turnover wherein powerful oxidative enzymes produce heterogeneous slates of aromatics compounds. This funneling approach offers a direct, biological solution to overcome heterogeneity problems in lignin valorization for the modern biorefinery.

Coupled to targeted separations and downstream chemical catalysis, this concept offers the ability to produce a wide range of molecules from lignin. This perspective describes research opportunities and challenges ahead for this new field of research, which holds ificant promise towards a biorefinery concept wherein polysaccharides and lignin are treated as equally valuable feedstocks.

In particular, we discuss tailoring the lignin substrate for microbial utilization, host selection for biological funneling, ligninolytic enzyme—microbe synergy, metabolic engineering, expanding substrate specificity for biological funneling, and process integration, each of which presents key challenges. Ultimately, for biological solutions to lignin valorization to be viable, multiple questions in each of these areas will need to be addressed, making biological lignin valorization a multidisciplinary, co-de problem. PubMed Central. Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud.

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Geodiversity of Georgia: valorization of geotouristic potential. Georgia, as a country with a high geodiversity, boasts an infinite variety of landscapes, wealth of geological formations and surface water systems. These attributes have a ificant influence on the development of geo-touristic potential. The prevalence of geotourism can positively improve the situation in the country. Unfortunately, many interesting places are not sufficiently well utilized, which makes them difficult to access.

There is also a failure to provide or disseminate information about these places to visitors. Various sources describe numerous locations, but none of them carry a full inventory or database of categorized objects.

Inventory based on studies and field work helped to create categorized geosites in Georgia including the occupied territories. Evidential cards with detailed descriptions were prepared for every cataloged object. Valorization of geotouristic potential determined two regions with an exceptionally huge attractiveness and geodiversity on a national scale.

of the evaluation and valorisation were visualised and presented as an application in ArcGIS Online platform. Thermochemical valorization and characterization of household biowaste. Valorization of municipal solid waste MSWby means of energy and material recovery, is considered to be a crucial step for sustainable waste management. A ificant fraction of MSW is comprised from food waste, the treatment of which is still a challenge. Therefore, the conventional disposal of food waste in landfills is being gradually replaced by recycling aerobic treatment, anaerobic digestion and waste-to-energy.

In principle, thermal processes like combustion and gasification are preferred for the recovery of energy due to the higher electrical efficiency and the ificantly less time Swinger sex Kannas-e Zarghami for the process to be completed when compared to biological process, i. Nonetheless, the high water content and the molecular structure of biowaste are constraining factors in regard to the application of thermal conversion pathways.

Investigating alternative solutions for the pre-treatment and more energy efficient handling of this waste fraction may provide pathways for the optimization of the whole process. Household biowaste has been thermally processed in a bench scale reactor by means of torrefaction, carbonization and high temperature pyrolysis. According to the operational conditions, fluctuating fractions of biochar, bio-oil tar and syngas were recovered. The analysis of the products shows that torrefaction of dried household biowaste produces an energy dense fuel and high temperature pyrolysis produces a graphite-like material with relatively high yield.

The growth of the biobased economy will lead to an increase in new biorefinery activities. All biorefineries face the regular challenges of efficiently and economically treating their effluent to be compatible with local Swinger sex Kannas-e Zarghami requirements and to minimize net water consumption.

The amount of wastes resulting from biorefineries industry is exponentially growing. The valorization of such wastes has drawn considerable attention with respect to resources with an observable economic and environmental concern. This has been a promising field which shows great prospective toward byproduct usage and increasing value obtained from the biorefinery. However, full-scale realization of biorefinery wastes valorization is not straightforward because several microbiological, technological and economic challenges need to be resolved.

In this review we considered valorization options for cereals based biorefineries wastes while identifying their challenges and exploring the opportunities for future process. Valorization of cereal based biorefinery byproducts: reality and expectations. Experience of valorization projects ISTC for laser technologies. Application of the achievements of the ISTC projects is one of the main problems being solved to achieve one of the basic goals of the ISTC, namely, to adapt Russian scientists to conditions of developing market economy in Russia.

The present report is aimed at rendering of promotional services for ISTC project teams in the context of the program of projects outcomes valorization. Bio-refinery approach for spent coffee grounds valorization.

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Although normally seen as a problem, current policies and strategic plans concur that if adequately managed, waste can be a source of the most interesting and valuable products, among which metals, oils and fats, lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses, tannins, antioxidants, caffeine, polyphenols, pigments, flavonoids, through recycling, compound recovery or energy valorizationfollowing the waste hierarchy. Besides contributing to more sustainable and circular economies, those products also have high commercial value when compared to the ones obtained by currently used waste treatment methods.

In this paper, it is shown how the bio-refinery framework can be used to obtain high value products from organic waste. With spent coffee grounds as a case study, a sequential process is used to obtain first the most valuable, and then other Swinger sex Kannas-e Zarghami, allowing proper valorization of residues and increased sustainability of the whole process. Challenges facing full development and implementation of waste based bio-refineries are highlighted. Electric field-based technologies for valorization of bioresources. This review provides an overview of recent research on electrotechnologies applied to the valorization of bioresources.

Following a comprehensive summary of the current status of the application of well-known electric-based processing technologies, such as pulsed electric fields PEF and high voltage electrical discharges HVEDthe application of moderate electric fields MEF as an extraction or valorization technology will be considered in detail.

MEF, known by its improved energy efficiency and claimed electroporation effects allowing enhanced extraction yieldsmay also originate high heating rates - ohmic heating OH effect - allowing thermal stabilization of waste stream for other added-value applications. MEF is a simple technology that mostly makes use of green solvents mainly water and that can be used on functionalization of compounds of biological origin broadening their application range.

The substantial increase of MEF-based plants installed in industries worldwide suggests its straightforward application for waste recovery. Valorization of winery Swinger sex Kannas-e Zarghami vs. Before the s, the most economical option for waste removal was the payment of a disposal fee usually being of around Euros. However, in recent years the disposal fee and fines for unauthorized discharges have increased considerably, often reaching 30, Euros, and a prison sentence is sometimesmore » also imposed. Some environmental friendly technologies have been proposed for the valorization of winery waste products.

Fermentation of grape marc, trimming vine shoot or vinification lees has been reported to produce lactic acid, biosurfactants, xylitol, ethanol and other compounds. Furthermore, grape marc and seeds are rich in phenolic compounds, which have antioxidants properties, and vinasse contains tartaric acid that can be extracted and commercialized. Companies must therefore invest in new technologies to decrease the impact of agro-industrial residues on the environment and to establish new processes that will provide additional sources of income.

A proposed new framework for valorization of geoheritage in Norway. The geological history of Norway is a complex one. The exploitation of geological resources of different kinds has always provided the backbone of the Norwegian community. Nevertheless, the perception of geology and the geological processes that created the landscape is little appreciated, compared to bio-diversity and cultural heritage. Some geological localities play an important role in our perception and scientific understanding of the landscape.

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